What is Centralized Database? | Functions, Advantages & Disadvantages

What is Centralized Database?

You may have heard the term “centralized database system” and not known what it means.

In a traditional database system, data is stored in multiple files. For example, each customer’s data might be stored in a separate file. In contrast, a centralized database system stores all of the data in one file. This makes it easier to manage the data, and it’s also easier to search the data because it’s all stored in the same place.

With the popularity of computers, it needs to be a system to store data and information from different locations. Numbers of techniques are being used in different computers to store and access information through a network channel. These techniques are known as database management systems which have different protocols to store data and information.


Centralized database management system is the system in which all the data is stored and managed in a single unit. This is also known as central computer database system. This system is mostly used in an organization, in any Business Company or in institution to centralize the tasks. Data can be accessed through a network Local Area Network (LAN) or Wide Area Network (WAN).  Mainframe computer is the example of centralized database management system.

Functions of centralized database

Distributed query processing

The basic function of centralized database management system is to provide facility and give access to all the connected computers which fulfill all requirements requested by any single node.

Single central unit

All the data and information are stored in single centralized database management system. The computer system which fulfills the requirements of all the connected computers is known as server and other computers are known as clients.


All the queries are processed in a single computer system also known as server. There is no duplication or irrelevant data stored in this management system. All connected computer has the access to central computer for their query processing and requirement.


No of computers can be added in this centralized database management system. These computers are connected to the system through a network.

Advantage of centralized database system:

Data integrity

Data is more unified as it stored in single computer system and managed. It is easier to communicate and coordinate to get more reliable and meaningful data.

Data redundancy

Data is centralized and stored in one location only. There is no duplication of data and irrelevancy in data.

Data security

Due to storage of data in centralized computer system, the security of data needs to be stronger. Centralized database management system is more secure and more efficient.  

Scalability and localization

New computer systems can be added or removed in centralized database management system more easily.

Data portability

Data can be easily transferred from one computer to another computer because it is stored in centralized database management system.

Lesser cost and maintenance

The centralized database system is cheaper in installation and maintenance than other database management systems and it required single storage system and data can be accessed by all the connected computers.

Disadvantage of centralized database system

Slow processing

In centralized database management system, data is stored in one location and it access and processing speed is lesser than other management system. It requires more time to access the data from one location.

Less efficiency

If the multiple users try to access and process query toward server simultaneously then it creates problem. The processing speed of the central computer turns into low. These problems may reduce the efficiency.

Loss of data

In centralized database management system, if any system failure occurs or any data is lost, then it is not recovered.  

Further Reading

Leave a Comment